Clean water is a mandatory element in daily life. Household drinking water sources may be contaminated by old water supply systems, broken pipes, tanks, or contaminated by natural disasters. So knowing how to Purify water for drinking before use is essential.
- 1 The essential of purify water for drinking
- 2 How to Identify contaminated water
- 3 How to purify water for drinking with 8 simple techniques
The essential of purify water for drinking
The presence of toxic impurities dissolved in water is very dangerous to humans when using so you need to know how to purify water.
Unsafe use of water in eating and drinking activities has a high risk of bacterial infection and digestive diseases. The bacteria that cause intestinal diseases, especially the Samonella group, can be persisted in water for quite a long time.
The bacteria that cause cholera, typhoid, paratyphoid, dysentery, etc. have been found in city tap water with contaminated water sources or where unsafe disinfectant measures are applied.
Excess chlorine water can cause bladder cancer or cardiovascular problems.
Pregnant women who use chlorinated water will make babies more susceptible to deformities, mental retardation. Not only eating, contacting pathogenic microorganisms in water when we wash, for example, schistosomiasis, will also cause allergic reactions, hives, and itching.
Therefore it is extremely important for us to know how to purify water immediately
How to Identify contaminated water
Water is a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid. So when the water has an unusual color, odor, and flavor, it means that the water is mixing with some impurities and you need to know how to clean the water to remove them. Some signs of contaminated water to look out for are as follows:
– Overusing chlorine compound in water treatment plants leads to the residual chlorine water, resulting in strange smells that can smell like metal, rust …
– The water smells of fishy, yellow opaque, there is scum floating on the water surface because it contains residues of iron, manganese, aluminum, etc.
– The smell similar to the rotten egg may be due to H2S gas generated in the process of decomposing organic matter in the ground and dissolving into groundwater, then the water is exploited and used directly.
– The musty smell due to solids completely decomposed in water has not been removed.
In addition, if the water is left under the sun for a long time, it is likely to show scum is a sign of unclean water.
How to purify water for drinking with 8 simple techniques
As mentioned, the importance of clean water is extremely large, so to ensure the health of yourself and your family, you should ensure the quality of water used. Below are some ways how to purify water for families.
Nano water filter (high technique)
A nano filter has a pore size of about 0.001 microns (the range of pore sizes varies from 0.008-micron to 0.01-micron filter; molecular weight 200-2000 Daltons; nano filter removes particles based on size ruler, weight, and properties.
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The effect of Nano water filter:
- Nanofiltration is highly effective in removing unicellular organisms (eg Cryptosporidium, Giardia);
- Nano filters are highly effective at removing bacteria (eg Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, E. coli);
- Nanofiltration is highly effective in removing viruses (eg intestinal virus, hepatitis A virus, Norovirus, Rotavirus);
Limitations: Nano filters are moderately effective at removing water-soluble chemicals. Therefore, users should be careful to understand the information about the filter and the input water when using the Nano water filter
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Reverse osmosis filtration system (advanced technique)
It’s can easily answer your question “How to purify water for drinking”. Reverse osmosis technology is an important achievement of science and technology. It was born in the 60s of the last century in the United States, this technology quickly became the leading technology in water filtration and water treatment.
- With this technology, scientists have created reverse osmosis membranes (RO membranes) for applications in the production of pure water. RO membranes are composed of a thin film made of special material (TFC – Thin Film Composite), which is fastened and rolled together into a spiral shape.
- On the surface of the membrane, there are small holes about the size of 0.1 – 0.5 nanometers (bigger than just a few H2O molecules), under the pressure of the water injection pump passing through the filter, only allowing water molecules to pass through to purify water source.
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The reason for doing so is because organic substances (pesticides, industrial dyes, etc.) often have large molecular sizes, so it cannot pass through the RO membrane.
Bacteria (several micrometers in size), or smaller viruses (several tens of nanometers in size), are tens of times larger than the size of the holes on the RO membrane, or small but hydrated metal ions (surrounded by water molecules) become bulkier and cannot penetrate the RO membrane. All are blocked and pushed out along the sewage line.
The reverse osmosis RO water treatment solution is considered to be the most advanced thanks to the ability to filter 99.9% of viruses, harmful bacteria in water, organic impurities, heavy metals, to produce completely pure water. This technology is currently applied in the production of household water filters to serve the needs of human eating in a wide way.
This is probably the oldest method of filtered water used.
The distillation system includes a process of heating the water to the boiling point and after that, capturing the condensed steam. As a result, this process minimizes many of the pollutants. This stored water is also known as distilled water.
However, to distill the hill water requires a large amount of energy and water, the distillation time is very slow. Another disadvantage of this method is that it can contain some harmful substances that are condensed, the distillation system usually takes a large space.
The effect of distillation technique:
- Distillation method are at high effectiveness at removing unicellular organisms (e.g., Cryptosporidium, Giardia);
- Distillation system is highly effective in removing bacteria (eg Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, E. coli);
- Distillation system works effectively in eliminating viruses (eg intestinal virus, hepatitis A virus, Norovirus, Rotavirus);
- The distillation system will also remove commonly seen chemical pollutants, for example, arsenic (arsenic), barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, nitrate, sodium, sulfate, as well as many organic chemicals.
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Disinfect the water by boiling
This is a common, easy, and effective way to kill water-borne pathogens. Boiling to 100 degrees to continue boiling water for 15 minutes will be capable of disinfecting the spores, worm eggs.
Disinfect water with chemicals
Commonly used water disinfectants are chlorine-containing chemicals such as Chloramine B (in powder form) or T (in pill form of 0.25g / capsule); Calcium hypochlorite. In principle, water after disinfection must have a residual chlorine concentration of 0.3-0.5mg / L.
Disinfect water with Cloramin B or T tablets:
- Cloramin B tablets or T tablets are very convenient for disinfecting small volumes of water such as jars, jars, small tanks in emergency cases. One Cloramin B or T tablet (0.25g / capsule) can be used to disinfect 25 liters of water.
- After disinfection, water should be stored in clean containers and tightly covered, boiled for foodservice
This method is widely used in purifying water treatment thanks to its ability to eliminate unpleasant odors and remove chlorine.
Activated carbon is made from many carbon materials to help eliminate microorganisms, objects, organic chemicals, and toxic substances in water. Carbon is often used in combination with other water treatment processes to achieve high filtration results.
Quick sterilization with ultraviolet light
UV treatment before filtration is a process of using ultraviolet light to disinfect water or lessen the number of existing bacteria.
- UV treatment system works pretty well in removing unicellular organisms (eg, Cryptosporidium, Giardia);
- Ultraviolet treatment system is relatively effective towards bacteria (eg Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, E. coli);
- UV treatment method shows its strength in eliminating viruses (eg intestinal virus, hepatitis A virus, Norovirus, Rotavirus);
Limitations: UV treatment system should not be used for removing chemicals.
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Removing toxins by bacteria
One of the very promising new water filtration methods developed by researchers at Scotlands Robert Gordon University: they have identified more than 10 different bacterial strains that can neutralize microcystins toxins.
If these bacteria are added to a water source, they can eliminate microcystin toxins and make the water safe to drink without using any chemicals (potentially harmful).
To raising the amount of hardness (calcium, magnesium) in the water , water softeners use ion exchange techniques to extract chemicals or ions.
It may also be used to remove iron and manganese, heavy metals, some radioactive substances, nitrates, arsenic, chromium, selenium, and sulfate.
This method shows bad performance against protozoa, bacteria , and viruses, however, so should be combined with other treatment methods when used.
Above are the identification signs of contaminated water and 10 common ways how to purify water for drinking today. Hopefully, AXIOS REVIEW will help you have a clean water source for your family.